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Evidence Based Searching in PubMed

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Using the Clinical Queries Page

PubMed's Clinical Queries page provides search filters that will improve your efficiency of searching for existing research within the database.

Search filters are designed to assist in searching for the evidence related to etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis, clinical prediction guides and systematic reviews.

Refer to the PubMed Help Guide for more assistance with using the Clinical Queries page.

 

Using MeSH terms

Utilizing Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) will increase your efficiency when searching PubMed. The MeSH thesarus is the controlled vocabulary for PubMed. It provides consistent terminology for concepts covered by the database.

Terms that begin with a slash are subheadings, generic terms used to narrow a particular MeSH. Examples of MeSH/[subheading] combinations are provided.

Each MeSH listed below is linked to its "Scope Note" in the PubMed database. A "Scope Note" provides information on how a particular MeSH is used in MEDLINE, what synonyms it covers, and cross references to other relevant MeSH.

For more information on using MeSH refer to the PubMed Quick Tour on MeSH

TERMS RELATED TO DIAGNOSIS

MeSH

Subheadings

  • /bl [Blood]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Hypercholesterolemia/bl [Blood])
  • /cf [Cerebrospinal Fluid]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Meningitis/cf [Cerebrospinal Fluid])
  • /du [Diagnostic Use]: use with chemical compounds, drugs, and physical agents (e.g., exp CONTRAST MEDIA/du [Diagnostic Use])
  • /pa [Pathology]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Liver Neoplasms/pa [Pathology])
  • /pc [Prevention & Control]: use with a specific disease MeSH for mass screening (e.g., exp Lung Neoplasms/pc [Prevention & Control])
  • /ra [Radiography]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Hip Fractures/ra [Radiography])
  • /ri [Radionuclide Imaging]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Thyroid Neoplasms/ri [Radionuclide Imaging])
  • /us [Ultrasonography]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Ovarian Neoplasms/us [Ultrasonography])
  • /ur [Urine]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Bacterial Infections/ur [Urine])

Differential & Physical Diagnosis

MeSH

Subheadings

  • /di [Diagnosis]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Dermatitis, Contact/di [Diagnosis]). Excludes mass screening, radiographic diagnosis, scintigraphic diagnosis and ultrasonic diagnosis, for which specific subheadings exist.

TERMS RELATED TO THERAPY

Drug Therapy

MeSH

Subheadings

  • /dt [Drug Therapy]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/dt [Drug Therapy])
  • /tu [Therapuetic Use]: use with drugs, biological preparations, and physical agents (e.g., exp PHENOBARBITAL/tu [Therapeutic Use])

Other Therapies

MeSH

Subheadings

  • /dh [Diet Therapy]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2/dh [Diet Therapy])
  • /pc [Prevention & Control]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Coronary Arteriosclerosis/pc [Prevention & Control])
  • /ra [Radiotherapy]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g. exp Bone Neoplasms/rt [Radiotherapy])
  • /re [Rehabilitation]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Cerebrovascular Accident/rh [Rehabilitation])
  • /su [Surgery]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp Myopia/su [Surgery]); excludes transplantion
  • /th [Therapy]: use with a specific disease MeSH (e.g., exp ANXIETY DISORDERS/th [Therapy]); excludes drug therapy, diet therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, for which specific subheadings exist. Also used for articles dealing with multiple therapies.
  • /tu [Therapuetic Use]: use with drugs, biological preparations, and physical agents (e.g., exp Ginkgo biloba/tu [Therapeutic Use])

Treatment Outcomes

TERMS RELATED TO PROGNOSIS 

TERMS RELATED TO ETIOLOGY/HARM

MeSH

Subheadings

  • /ae [Adverse Effects]: use with drugs, chemicals, or biological agents in accepted dosage - or with physical agents or manufactured products in normal usage (e.g. exp Plants, Genetically Modified/ae [Adverse Effects])

 

Links in preceeding section:

PubMed Quick Tour on MeSH = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/dist_edu.html
exp Biological Markers = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Biological+Markers
Diagnostic Techniques & Procedures = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Diagnostic+Techniques+Procedures
exp Mass Screening = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Mass+Screening
Predictive Value of Tests = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Predictive+Value+Tests
exp Radiography = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radiography
Radionuclide Imaging = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radionuclide+imaging
exp "Sensitivity & Specificity" = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=sensitivity+specificity
exp Tumor Markers, Biological = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Tumor+Markers,+Biological
exp Ultrasonography = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Ultrasonography
/bl [Blood] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Blood%5Bsubheading%5D
/cf [Cerebrospinal Fluid] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=cerebrospinal+fluid%5Bsubheading%5D
/du [Diagnostic Use] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Diagnostic+Use
/pa [Pathology] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Pathology%5Bsubheading%5D
/pc [Prevention & Control] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Prevention%5Bsubheading%5D
/ra [Radiography] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radiography%5Bsubheading%5D
/ri [Radionuclide Imaging] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radionuclide+imaging%5Bsubheading%5D
/us [Ultrasonography] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Ultrasonography%5Bsubheading%5D
/ur [Urine] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Urine%5Bsubheading%5D
Diagnosis, Differential = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=diagnosis+differential
Diagnostic Techniques & Procedures = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Diagnostic+Techniques+Procedures
Medical History Taking = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Medical+History+Taking
exp Physical Examination = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Physical+Examination
Predictive Value of Tests = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Predictive+Value+Tests
exp "Sensitivity & Specificity" = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=sensitivity+specificity
exp "Signs & Symptoms" = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Signs+and+Symptoms
/di [Diagnosis] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Diagnosis%5Bsubheading%5D
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=adjuvants,+pharmaceutic
exp Dosage Forms = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=PureSearch&db=mesh&details_term=%28%22dosage%20forms%22%5BMeSH%20Terms%5D%20OR%20dosage%20forms%5BText%20Word%5D%29
exp Drug Administration Routes = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Administration+Routes
exp Drug Administration Schedule = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Administration+Schedule
Drug Dose-Response Relationship = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Dose-Response+Relationship
exp Drug Therapy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=drug+therapy
exp Drug Therapy, Combination = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Therapy,+Combination
/dt [Drug Therapy] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Therapy
/tu [Therapuetic Use] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=therapy%5Bsubheading%5D
exp Combined Modality Therapy = http://www.library.tufts.edu/hsl/resources/ebm_mesh.html#dx_tests
exp Diet Therapy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=diet+therapy
exp Exercise Therapy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=exercise+therapy
exp Radiotherapy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radiotherapy
exp Rehabilitation = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Rehabilitation
exp Surgical Procedures, Operative = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Surgical+Procedures
/dh [Diet Therapy] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Diet+Therapy%20%5Bsubheading%5D
/pc [Prevention & Control] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Prevention%5Bsubheading%5D
/ra [Radiotherapy] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Radiotherapy%20%5Bsubheading%5D
/re [Rehabilitation] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Rehabilitation%20%5Bsubheading%5D
/su [Surgery] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Surgery%20%5Bsubheading%5D
/th [Therapy] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Therapy%5Bsubheading%5D
/tu [Therapuetic Use] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Therapeutic+Use
Recovery of Function = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Recovery+of+Function
Recurrence = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Recurrence
Remission Induction = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Remission+Induction
Time Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Time+Factors
exp Treatment Outcome = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Treatment+Outcome
Treatment Failure = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Treatment%2BFailure
Life Expectancy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Life%20Expectancy
Mortality = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=mortality
exp Prognosis = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Prognosis
Disease-Free Survival = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Disease%20Free%20Survival
Medical Futility = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Medical%2BFutility
Pregnancy Outcome = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=pregnancy%2Boutcome
exp Treatment Outcome = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Treatment%2BOutcome
Treatment Failure = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Treatment%2BFailure
Quality of Life = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Quality+of+Life
Quality-Adjusted Life Year = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Quality-Adjusted+Life+Year
Recovery of Function = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Recovery+of+Function
Recurrence = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Recurrence
Remission Induction = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Remission+Induction
Sex Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Sex+Factors
exp Survival = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Survival
Time Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Time+Factors
Disease Susceptibility = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=PureSearch&db=mesh&details_term=
exp Drug Hypersensitivity = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Hypersensitivity
exp Drug Interactions = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Drug+Interactions
exp Environmental Pollution = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Environmental+Pollution
exp Occupational Diseases = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Occupational+Diseases
Polypharmacy = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Polypharmacy
exp Risk = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Risk
Risk Assessment = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Risk+Assessment
Risk Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Risk+Factors
Sex Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Sex+Factors
exp Teratogens = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Teratogens
Time Factors = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=Time+Factors
/ae [Adverse Effects] = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=MeSH&term=supply

Contact with Questions
Links in preceeding section:

Library Reference Staff = http://undmedlibrary.org/Mail?r=nTMfpzIzDT1yMTywnJ5yYz5iMTSeYzIxqDyFMJMypzIhL2H=

Page Updated December 3rd, 2010

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